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英語論文文獻綜述范文

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文獻綜述范文


雖然合作原則是總結人類傳播的基本特征,但語用學領域的一個研究發現,在實際交際中,人們并不總是遵守合作原則,他們經常違反的一些原則。

   Though the Cooperation principle summarize the essential characteristics of communication of human beings, but a further study of the field of Pragmatics finds Literaure that in actual communication, people will not always obey the Cooperation Principle, they often violate some of the principles intentionally. But the purpose must mean to use indirect way to express some implicative meaning to pass some information fits in with Cooperation Principle.

  leech提出的“禮貌原則”或簡稱PP,試圖彌補格萊斯的合作原則(CP)假定它是無法解釋為什么,例如,人們傾向于使用說事情水蛭間接的方式,這是禮貌,促使它。喜歡競爭的社會行為(訂貨,請,乞討,等)的需求遠遠超過其他類型的禮貌友善和合作,因為前者使聽眾的面子威脅,或消極面子(布朗和萊文森(1978/1987)。各種禮貌策略,從而來減輕面子威脅的力量。根據Leech的更大的成本行為是觀眾,更禮貌的人應該盡量使話語。

   Leech (1983)  formulates “Politeness Principle” or PP for short, trying to remedy Grice’s Cooperative Principle (CP) which is presumed to be unable to interpret why, for instance, people are prone to use indirect ways of saying thing to Leech, and it is politeness that motivates it. Social acts like competitive demand politeness far more than other kinds like convivial and collaborative, because the former makes a threat to the audience’s face, or negative face(in Brown and Levinson’s(1978/1987 terms) . Various politeness strategies thus are employed to mitigate the face-threatening power. According to Leech the greater the cost an act is to the audience, the more polite the speaker ought to try to make the utterance.
   The PP of Leech has six maxims:
   Tact Maxim: Minimize cost to hearer, maximize benefit to hearer.
   Generosity Maxim: Minimize benefit to speaker, maximize cost to speaker.
   Approbation Maxim: Minimize dispraise to hearer, maximize praise of hearer.
   Modesty Maxim: Minimize praise of speaker, maximize dispraise of speaker.
   Agreement Maxim: Minimize disagreement between speaker and hearer; maximize agreement between speaker and hearer.
   Sympathy Maxim: Minimize antipathy between speaker and hearer; maximize sympathy between speaker and hearer.
   Each kind of maxim contains one or two principles, the core of them is-make yourself in an unfavorable situation, allow your partner to make some profits first to get a good impression so that you can communicate with them smoothly and make greater benefits.
Naturally, it does not mean that people should always obey the Politeness Principle to anyone in anytime, anywhere. In some cases, such as urgent accident, heated debate or tense working occasion or casual talks with friends, Politeness Principle might be less important. However, optimum politeness is polite, but too much politeness is grovel, exceed the boundary of politeness will give an impression of artificial false and humble to others.
   For example:
   We beg to acknowledge receipt of your letter dated 11th December.
   It’s not proper to use the word “beg” to debase yourself, so we must clearly know the differences between “politeness” and “gravellier”, grasp the extent of Politeness Principle, not to be arrogant or servile.
   Email-As a real written communication way, it has the character of common Email; it also has the character of business letter. Both business Email and common Email attach importance to Politeness Principles. But, after analyzing, we found that their emphasis is different, the former prefers to use “Approbation Maxim” of Politeness Principle which pays more attention to maintain the positive face of its partner, hopes to get praise, support and affection and attach importance to maintain friendly cooperative relationship. The latter tends to use the avoid-based negative politeness principle which pays attention to objective formal, tries to maintain the negative face of its cooperator, hopes that the others will not impose on him/her, he/she will not to be Interfered, hindered or lost face because of yielding to others.
For example, for the same mail of counter offer, the expression way of traditional business letter is:
“May I suggest that you could perhaps make some allowance on your quoted prices which would help to introduce your goods to my customers http://www.51fabiao.org/LiteraureReview/ ?”
It uses so many questioning words and also uses indefinite restricted words which represent negative Politeness Principle.
On the contrary, business Email will express in a different way.
For example:
“I met with my customer today on both of the bags, unfortunately the price is still not very competitive,thanks for your help”,
   It used Agreement Maximand sympathy Maximof Politeness Principle to make the mail more acceptable and reasonable.


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