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美國assignment代寫_環保學assignment寫作范文

澳洲論文代寫提供 assignment代寫 ,essay代寫,是澳洲最好的澳洲論文代寫司,代寫assignment保證100%原創,turnitin軟件檢測,專注澳洲論文代寫,悉尼代寫. 本文提出的方法用于建立一個木材燃料供..

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美國assignment代寫_環保學assignment寫作范文

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本文提出的方法用于建立一個木材燃料供應鏈為煤/紅色電廠考慮木材資源,潛在的供應商和金融、經濟和環境的制約。第一步是定量和定性的森林殘留電站周圍的評價。在下一階段,供應鏈的特點進行了分析。最后,結合森林殘留物的來源和供應鏈的多個標準的能源生產商的約束下選擇。在本案例研究,分析得出的結論是一個最佳的策略包括三個層次:一個基層由大規模伐木采收嫩枝從/ NAL的削減,一個頂層由中等規模的記錄器主要收獲的硬木,和一個由小規模的伐木工人和農民儲備水平。給出了詳細的特點。文章介紹了在比利時和歐洲合作伙伴,在四月1998日簽署的“京都議定書”框架內所作的承諾,結果為比1990 [ 1 ]在比利時減少了所有溫室氣體排放的7.5%。在瓦隆地區,可再生能源應包括10%的總用電量的2010,生物量占65%。然而,沒有或很少需求的可用資源,我們注意到,森林殘留物占干生物量的潛力70%、7.6拍焦耳每年[2,3]等效。森林殘留物因此代表達成的/固定的目標相當大的一步。為了遵守新規定的“綠色”電力,他們正在尋找他們的老煤炭/紅色發電廠,10%木材直接從森林供應。

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This paper presents the methods used to establish a wood-fuel supply chain for coal-/red power plants taking into account wood resources, potential suppliers and /nancial, economic and environmental constraints. The /rst step is a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of forest residues around the power plants. At the next stage, the supply chain characteristics are analyzed. Finally, a combination of forest residue sources and supply chains is selected under the constraints of the multiple criteria of the energy producers. In the present case study, the conclusion of the analysis is that an optimal strategy includes three levels: one base level made up of large-scale loggers harvesting softwood from /nal cuts, one top level made up of medium-scale loggers mainly harvesting hardwoods, and a reserve level made up of small-scale loggers and farmers. Detailed characteristics of these levels are given. ? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Forest residues; Bioenergy; Harvesting; Supply; Strategy; Biomass; Co/ring 1. Introduction The commitments entered into within the framework of the Kyoto Protocol signed by Belgium and its European partners in April 1998, result for Belgium a reduction of 7.5% of emissions of all greenhouse gases compared to the level of 1990 [1]. In the Walloon Region, renewable energy should cover 10% of the total electricity consumption by 2010, with biomass representing 65% of that. However, available resource with no or little demand for, we notice that forest residues represent more than 70% of the potential of dry biomass, equivalent of 7.6 Petajoules per year [2,3]. Forest residues therefore represent a considerable step towards reaching the /xed objectives.This paper is based on a case study carried out for ELECTRABEL, the main Belgian power producer. In order to comply with the new regulations regarding “green” electricity, they were looking to supply two of their old coal-/red power plants with 10% wood coming directly from the forest. The two coal-/red power plants are located in Wallonia (Southern Belgium) along the Meuse. This paper presents the methods used to establish a forest fuel supply chain for coal-/red power plants taking into account wood resources, potential suppliers and /nancial, economic and environmental constraints or wishes.

2. Material and method 材料和方法

This section includes the methodology used to assess the forest residue resource, to characterize the 0961-9534/03/$ -see front matter ? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S0961-9534(02)00161-7 
402 J.-F. Van Belle et al./Biomass and Bioenergy24 (2003) 401–409 supply chains and to select an optimal supply strategy for the power plants. DiKerent studies have already been carried out in order to calculate delivery costs for wood fuel taking into account multiple parameters. Asikainen et al. [4,5] showed that an important cost factor in wood fuel procurement is the scale of operation. Harvesting machinery is expensive and thus the annual output considerably aKects the costs. In addition, the greater the share of the potential fuel supply recovered, the higher the cost of procurement. The eKect of plant localization was also studied by Graham et al. [6,7]. This study takes into account these factors but tries also to integrate other factors usually not included like social considerations.


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